=OF GERMAN HISTORY.=
The history of Germany is generally divided into Five Periods, as
I.--From the earliest accounts to the empire of Charlemagne.
II.--From Charlemagne to the downfall of the Hohenstaufens.
III.--From the Interregnum to the Reformation.
IV.--From the Reformation to the Peace of Westphalia.
V.--From the Peace of Westphalia to the present time.
Some historians subdivide these periods, or change their limits; but
there seems to be no other form of division so simple, natural, and
easily borne in the memory. While retaining it, however, in the
chronological table which follows, we shall separate the different
dynasties which governed the German Empire, up to the time of the
Interregnum, which is removed, by an irregular succession during two
centuries, from the permanent rule of the Hapsburg family.
FIRST PERIOD. (B. C. 103--A. D. 768.)
113. The Cimbrians and Teutons invade Italy.
102. Marius defeats the Teutons.
101. Marius defeats the Cimbrians.
58. Julius Caesar defeats Ariovistus.
55--53. Caesar twice crosses the Rhine.
12--9. Campaigns of Drusus in Northern Germany.
9. Defeat of Varus by Hermann.
14--16. Campaigns of Germanicus.
21. Death of Hermann.
69. Revolt of Claudius Civilis.
98. Tacitus writes his "Germania."
166--181. War of the Marcomanni against Marcus Aurelius.
200--250. Union of the German tribes under new names.
276. Probus invades Germany.
358. Julian defeats the Alemanni.
358--378. Bishop Ulfila converts the Goths to Christianity.
=The Migrations of the Races.=
375. The coming of the Huns.
378. The Emperor Valens defeated by the Visigoths.
395. Theodosius divides the Roman Empire.
396. Alaric's invasion of Greece.
403. Alaric meets Stilicho in Italy.
406. Stilicho defeats the German hordes at Fiesole.
410. Alaric takes Rome.
411. Alaric dies in Southern Italy.
412. Ataulf leads the Visigoths to Gaul.
429. The Vandals, under Geiserich, invade Africa.
449. The Saxons and Angles settle in England.
450. March of Attila to Gaul; battle of Chalons.
452. Attila in Italy.
455. Rome devastated by Geiserich and the Vandals.
476. The Roman Empire overthrown by Odoaker.
481--511. Chlodwig, King of the Franks.
486. End of the Roman rule in Gaul.
493. Theodoric and his Ostrogoths conquer Italy.
500. Chlodwig defeats the Burgundians.
526. Death of Theodoric the Great.
527--565. Reign of Justinian.
527. The Franks conquer Thuringia.
532. The Franks conquer Burgundy.
534. Belisarius overthrows the Vandal power in Africa.
552. Extermination of the Ostrogoths by Narses.
=Kingdom of the Franks.=
558--561. Reign of Clotar, King of the Franks.
568. Alboin leads the Longobards to Italy.
590--604. Spread of Christianity under Pope Gregory the Great.
590--597. Wars of Fredegunde and Brunhilde.
613. Murder of Brunhilde.
613--622. Clotar II., King of the Franks.
650. Pippin of Landen, steward to the royal household.
687. Pippin of Heristall.
711. The Saracens conquer Spain from the Visigoths.
732. Karl Martel defeats the Saracens at Tours.
741. Death of Karl Martel; Pippin the Short.
745. Winfried (Bonifacius), Archbishop of Mayence.
752. Pippin the Short becomes King of the Franks.
754. Pippin founds the temporal power of the Popes.
755. Bonifacius slain in Friesland.
768. Death of Pippin; his sons, Karl and Karloman.
SECOND PERIOD. (768--1254.)
=The Carolingian Dynasty.=
771. Karl (Charlemagne) sole ruler.
772--803. His wars with the Saxons.
774--775. March to Italy; overthrow of the Lombard kingdom.
777--778. Charlemagne's invasion of Spain.
788. Tassilo, Duke of Bavaria, deposed.
789. War with the Wends, east of the Elbe.
791. War with the Avars, in Hungary.
800. Charlemagne crowned Emperor in Rome.
814. Death of Charlemagne.
814--840. Ludwig the Pious.
843. Partition of Verdun.
843--876. Ludwig the German.
879. The kingdom of Arelat (Lower Burgundy) founded.
884--887. Karl the Fat unites France and Germany.
887--899. Arnulf of Carinthia.
891. Arnulf defeats the Norsemen in Belgium.
900--911. Ludwig the Child.
911--918. Konrad I., the Frank, King of Germany.
911--918. Wars with the Hungarians.
=The Saxon Emperors.=
919--936. King Henry I., of Saxony (the Fowler).
928. Victory over the Wends.
933. Great victory over the Hungarians, near Merseburg.
933. Upper and Lower Burgundy united as one kingdom.
936--973. Otto I., the Great.
939. Otto subjects the German Dukes.
952. Rebellion against his rule.
955. The Hungarians defeated on the Lech.
962. Otto renews the empire of Charlemagne.
973--983. Otto II.
982. His defeat by the Saracens.
983--1002. Otto III.; decline of the imperial power.
1002--1024. Henry II.; increasing power of the bishops.
1016. The Normans settle in Southern Italy.
=The Frank Emperors.=
1024--1039. Konrad II., Emperor.
1026. His visit to Rome; friendship with Canute the Great.
1033. Burgundy attached to the German Empire.
1039--1056. Henry III.; Poland, Bohemia, and Hungary, subject to the
1046. Synod of Sutri; Henry III. removes three Popes.
1046. The "Congregation of Cluny;" the "Peace of God."
1054. Pope Leo IX. captured by the Normans.
1056--1106. Henry IV.
1062. Henry IV.'s abduction by Bishop Hanno.
1073. Revolt of the Saxons.
1073. Hildebrand becomes Pope as Gregory VII.
1076. Henry IV. deposes the Pope, and is excommunicated.
1077. Henry IV.'s humiliation at Canossa.
1081. Death of the Anti-King, Rudolf of Suabia.
1084. Henry IV. in Rome; ravages of the Normans.
1085. Death of Pope Gregory VII.
1092. Revolt of Konrad, son of Henry IV.
1095. The first Crusade.
1099. Jerusalem taken by Godfrey of Bouillon.
1105. Rebellion of Henry, son of Henry IV.
1106--1125. Henry V.
1111. He imprisons Pope Paschalis II.
1113. Defeat of the Saxons.
1115. He is defeated by the Saxons.
1118. Orders of knighthood founded.
1122. The Concordat of Worms.
1125. Rise of the Hohenstaufens.
1125--1137. Lothar of Saxony, Emperor.
1134. The North-mark given to Albert the Bear.
1138. Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony.
=The Hohenstaufen Emperors.=
1138--1152. King Konrad III.; Guelphs and Ghibellines.
1142. Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony.
1142. Albert the Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg.
1147. The second Crusade.
1152--1190. Frederick I., Barbarossa.
1163. Union of the Lombard cities.
1176. Barbarossa's defeat at Legnano.
1177. Reconciliation with the Pope at Venice.
1179. Otto of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria.
1181. Henry the Lion banished.
1183. The Peace of Constance.
1190. The third Crusade; death of Barbarossa; foundation of the
1190--1197. Henry VI. (receives also Naples and Sicily).
1192. Richard of the Lion-Heart imprisoned.
1195. Death of Henry the Lion.
1197--1208. Philip of Suabia; Otto IV. of Brunswick rival Emperor;
1208. Murder of Philip of Suabia.
1212. Frederick II., Hohenstaufen, comes to Germany.
1215--1250. Frederick II.'s reign.
1226. The German Order occupies Prussia.
1227. Frederick II. excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX.
1228. The fifth Crusade, led by Frederick II.
1235. Rebellion of Frederick's son, Henry.
1237. Frederick II.'s victory at Cortenuovo.
1245. Pope Innocent IV. excommunicates the Emperor.
1247. Death of Henry Raspe, Anti-Emperor.
1250. Foundation of the Hanseatic League.
1250--1254. Konrad IV.
1254. Union of cities of the Rhine.
1256. Death of William of Holland, Anti-Emperor.
1266. Battle of Benevento; death of King Manfred.
1268. Konradin's march to Italy, defeat, and execution.
THIRD PERIOD. (1254--1517.)
=Emperors of Various Houses.=
1256. Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile elected.
1273--1291. Rudolf of Hapsburg, Emperor.
1278. Defeat of King Ottokar of Bohemia.
1291--1298. Adolf of Nassau.
1291. Union of three Swiss Cantons.
1298. Albert of Austria defeats and slays Adolf of Nassau.
1298--1308. Albert I. of Austria.
1308. He is murdered by John Parricida.
1308--1313. Henry VII. of Luxemburg.
1308. The Papacy removed from Rome to Avignon.
1310. Henry VII.'s son, John, King of Bohemia.
1313. Henry VII. poisoned in Italy.
1314--1347. Ludwig the Bavarian.
1314--1330. Frederick of Austria, Anti-Emperor.
1315. Battle of Morgarten.
1322. Ludwig's victory at Muehldorf.
1324. He gets possession of Brandenburg.
1327. His journey to Rome; Pope John XXII. deposed.
1338. Convention of German princes at Rense.
1344. Invention of gunpowder.
1346. The Pope declares Ludwig deposed, and appoints Karl IV. of
1347. Death of Ludwig the Bavarian.
1347--1378. Karl IV. (Luxemburg).
1348. Guenther of Schwarzburg, Anti-Emperor.
1356. Proclamation of "The Golden Bull."
1363. Tyrol annexed to Austria.
1368. The Hanseatic League defeats Waldemar III. of Denmark.
1373. Karl IV. acquires Brandenburg.
1377. War of Suabian cities with Count Eberhard.
1378--1418. Schism in the Catholic Church.
1378--1400. Wenzel of Bohemia (Luxemburg).
1386. Battle of Sempach.
1388. War of the Suabian cities.
1400. Wenzel deposed.
1400--1410. Rupert of the Palatinate.
1409. The Council of Pisa.
1410. The German Order defeated by the Poles.
1411. Three Emperors and three Popes at the same time.
1411. Frederick of Hohenzollern receives Brandenburg.
1411--1437. Sigismund of Bohemia.
1414--1418. The council at Constance.
1415. Martyrdom of Huss.
1418. End of the schism; Martin V., Pope.
1419--1436. The Hussite wars; Ziska; Procopius.
1431--1449. Council of Basel.
1437. Death of Sigismund.
=The Hapsburg Emperors.=
1438--1439. Albert II. of Austria; beginning of the uninterrupted
succession of the Hapsburgs.
1440--1493. Frederick III.
1444. Battle of St. James.
1450. Invention of printing.
1453. Constantinople taken by the Turks.
1466. Treaty of Thorn; Prussia tributary to Poland.
1474. War with Charles the Bold of Burgundy.
1476. Battles of Grandson and Morat.
1477. Death of Charles the Bold; marriage of Maximilian of
Austria and Mary of Burgundy.
1486--1525. Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony.
1493--1516. Maximilian I.
1495. Perpetual peace declared; the imperial court.
1512. Division of Germany into districts.
FOURTH PERIOD. (1517--1648.)
1483. Martin Luther born.
1502. He enters the University of Erfurt.
1508. Is appointed professor at Wittenberg.
1510. Luther's journey to Rome.
1517. Luther nails his ninety-five theses, against the sale of
indulgences, to the church-door in Wittenberg.
1518. Interview with Cajetanus in Augsburg.
1519. Interview with Miltitz in Altenburg.
1520. Luther burns the Pope's Bull.
1520--1556. Charles V., Emperor.
1521. Luther at the Diet of Worms; his concealment.
1522. His return to Wittenberg.
1524. Ferdinand of Austria and the Bavarian dukes unite against
1525. The Peasants' War.
1525--1532. John the Steadfast, Elector of Saxony.
1525. Albert of Brandenburg joins the Reformers; end of the
German Order; battle of Pavia.
1526. Ferdinand of Austria inherits Hungary and Bohemia.
1526. The League of Torgau.
1527. War of Charles V. against Francis I. and the Pope; Rome
taken by the Constable de Bourbon.
1529. Peace of Cambray; Diet of Speyer; the name of
"Protestants;" Luther meets Zwingli; Vienna besieged by
the Turks; Charles V. crowned at Bologna.
1530. Diet of Augsburg; the "Augsburg Confession."
1531. League of Schmalkalden.
1532. Religious Peace of Nuremberg.
1532--1554. John Frederick, Elector of Saxony.
1534. Duke Ulric of Wuertemberg joins the Protestants.
1536--1538. Charles V.'s third war with Francis I.
1540. Ignatius Loyola founds the Order of Jesuits.
1542--1544. Charles V.'s fourth war with Francis I.
1545--1563. The Council of Trent.
1546. Death of Luther; the Schmalkalden War; treachery of
Maurice of Saxony.
1547. Battle of Muehlberg; capture of John Frederick of Saxony;
Philip of Hesse imprisoned.
1548. The Augsburg "Interim."
1552. Maurice of Saxony marches against Charles V.; Henry II. of
France takes Toul, Metz, and Verdun.
1553. Death of Maurice of Saxony.
1555. The religious Peace of Augsburg.
1556. Abdication of Charles V.
1556--1564. Ferdinand I.
1558. Death of Charles V.
1560. Death of Melanchthon.
1564--1579. Maximilian II.
1567. Grumbach's rebellion.
1576--1612. Rudolf II.
1581. Rise of the Netherlands against Spain.
1606. Rudolf II.'s brother, Matthias, rules in Austria.
1608. The "Protestant Union" founded.
1609. The "Catholic League" founded; "War of the Succession of
1612--1619. Matthias, Emperor.
1614. End of the "War of the Succession of Cleves."
=The Thirty Years' War.=
1618. Outbreak in Prague.
1619--1637. Ferdinand II.; Frederick V. of the Palatinate chosen King
1620. Battle near Prague; flight of Frederick V.
1622. Victories of Tilly in Baden.
1623. Tilly defeats Prince Christian of Brunswick.
1624. Union of the northern states.
1625. Christian IV. of Denmark appointed commander; Wallenstein
enters the field.
1626. Defeat of Mansfeld by Wallenstein: defeat of Christian IV.
1628. Wallenstein's siege of Stralsund.
1629. The "Edict of Restitution."
1630. Diet in Ratisbon; Wallenstein removed: Richelieu helps the
Protestants; Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden lands in Germany.
1631. Tilly destroys Magdeburg; Gustavus Adolphus defeats Tilly
and marches to Frankfort.
1632. Death of Tilly; Gustavus Adolphus in Munich; his attack on
Wallenstein's camp; battle of Luetzen, and death.
1633. Union of Protestants under Oxenstierna.
1634. Murder of Wallenstein; defeat of the Protestants at
1635. Saxony concludes a "separate peace."
1636. Victories of Baner.
1637--1657. Ferdinand III.
1638. Duke Bernard of Weimar victorious in Alsatia.
1639. Death of Duke Bernard.
1640. Diet at Ratisbon.
1642. Victories of the Swedish general, Torstenson.
1643. Torstenson's campaign in Denmark.
1645. Torstenson's victories in Bohemia; his march to Vienna;
the French generals, Turenne and Conde, in Germany.
1648. Protestant victories; Koenigsmark takes Prague.
1648. The Peace of Westphalia.
FIFTH PERIOD. (1648--1892.)
1640--1688. Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector."
1643--1715. Louis XIV., King of France.
1655--1660. War of Sweden and Poland.
1656. Battle of Warsaw.
1657--1705. Leopold I.
1660. The Duchy of Prussia independent of Poland.
1667--1668. Louis XIV.'s invasion of the Spanish Netherlands; the
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1672--1678. Louis XIV.'s war against Holland.
1673. The "Great Elector" assists Holland.
1675. The battle of Fehrbellin.
1676. The Elector conquers Pomerania.
1678. The Peace of Nymwegen.
1681. Strasburg taken by Louis XIV.
1683. Siege of Vienna by the Turks; John Sobieski.
1687. The shambles of Eperies.
1688--1713. Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg.
1689--1697. Attempts of Louis XIV. to obtain the Palatinate.
1697. Peace of Ryswick; Prince Eugene of Savoy defeats the Turks
at Zenta; Augustus the Strong of Saxony becomes King of
1699. Peace of Carlowitz.
1701. Prussia is made a kingdom.
1701--1714. War of the Spanish Succession.
1704. Battle of Blenheim.
1705--1711. Joseph I.
1706. Victories of Marlborough at Ramillies and Prince Eugene at
1706. Charles XII. of Sweden in Saxony.
1708. Battle of Oudenarde.
1709. Battle of Malplaquet.
1711--1740. Karl VI.
1713--1740. Frederick William I., King of Prussia.
1713. The Peace of Utrecht.
1714. The Peace of Rastatt; the Elector George of Hannover
becomes King George I. of England.
1717. Taking of Belgrade by Prince Eugene.
1718. Treaty of Passarowitz.
1720. Treaty of Stockholm; Prussia acquires Pomerania.
1733--1735. War of the Polish Succession.
1740. Death of Karl VI.
=The Age of Frederick the Great.=
1712. Frederick born, in Berlin.
1730. His attempted flight; execution of Katte.
1740. Succeeds to the throne as Frederick II. of Prussia.
1740--1742. First Silesian War.
1741--1748. War of the Austrian Succession.
1742--1745. Karl VII. (of Bavaria), Emperor.
1742. Peace of Breslau; Prussia gains Silesia.
1743. Battle of Dettingen.
1744. East Friesland annexed to Prussia.
1744--1745. Second Silesian War.
1745. Battles of Hohenfriedberg, Sorr, and Kesselsdorf; Peace of
Dresden; death of Karl VII.
1745--1765. Francis I. of Lorraine.
1748. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1750. Voltaire comes to Berlin.
1756--1763. The Seven Years' War.
1756. Frederick's successes in Saxony and Bohemia.
1757. Frederick's victory at Prague; defeat at Kollin; victories
at Rossbach and Leuthen.
1758. Ferdinand of Brunswick defeats the French; siege of
Olmuetz; victory of Zorndorf; surprise of Hochkirch.
1759. Battles of Minden and Kunnersdorf; misfortunes of Prussia.
1760. Battle of Liegnitz; taking of Berlin; victory of Torgau.
1761. Frederick hard pressed; losses of Prussia.
1762. Death of Elizabeth of Russia; alliance with Czar Peter
III.; Catharine II.; Prussian successes.
1763. The Peace of Hubertsburg.
1765--1790. Joseph II.
1769. Interview of Frederick the Great and Joseph II.
1772. First partition of Poland.
1774--1782. American War of Independence.
1778. Troubles with the Bavarian succession.
1780. Death of Maria Theresa.
1786. Death of Frederick the Great.
1786--1797. Frederick William II., King of Prussia.
1787. Prussia interferes in Holland.
1788--1791. Austria joins Russia against Turkey.
1790. Death of Joseph II.
=Wars with the French Republic and Napoleon.=
1789. Beginning of the French Revolution.
1790--1792. Leopold II.
1792. France declares war against Austria and Prussia.
1792. Campaign in France; battles of Valmy and Jemappes.
1792--1835. Francis II.
1793. Second partition of Poland; the first Coalition; successes
of the Allies.
1794. France victorious in Belgium; Prussia victorious on the
1795. Third and last partition of Poland; Prussia makes peace
1796. Bonaparte in Italy; Jourdan defeated in Germany; Moreau's
1797. Peace of Campo Formio.
1797--1840. Frederick William III., King of Prussia.
1798. Congress of Rastatt; Bonaparte in Egypt.
1799. The second Coalition; Suwarrow in Italy; Bonaparte First
1800. Battles of Marengo and Hohenlinden.
1801. Peace of Luneville; France extends to the Rhine.
1803. Reconstruction of Germany; French invasion of Hannover.
1804. Duke d'Enghien shot; Napoleon, Emperor.
1805. The third Coalition; battle of Austerlitz; defeat of
Austria and Russia; Peace of Presburg.
1806. The "Rhine-Bund" established; Francis II. gives up the
imperial crown: battle of Jena; all Prussia in the hands
1807. Battles of Eylau and Friedland; Peace of Tilsit; Jerome
Bonaparte made King of Westphalia.
1808. Napoleon and Alexander I. in Erfurt; Joseph Bonaparte,
King of Spain.
1809. Austria begins war with France; revolts of Hofer and
Schill; Napoleon marches to Vienna; battles of Aspern and
Wagram; Peace of Schoenbrunn.
1810. Marriage of Napoleon and Maria Louisa; annexation of
Holland and Northern Germany to France.
1812. Germany compelled to unite with Napoleon against Russia;
battle of Borodino; burning of Moscow; the retreat;
General York's alliance with Russia.
1813. The War of Liberation; Frederick William III. yields to
the pressure; the army of volunteers; battles of Luetzen
and Bautzen; armistice; the fifth Coalition; Austria joins
the Allies; victories of the Katzbach, Kulm, and
Dennewitz; great battle of Leipzig; Napoleon's retreat;
battle of Hanan; Germany liberated.
1814. The campaign in France; the Allies enter Paris; Napoleon's
abdication; the Congress of Vienna.
1815. Napoleon's return from Elba; the new German Confederation;
battles of Ligny and Waterloo; end of Napoleon's rule;
second Peace of Paris; the "Holy Alliance."
=Germany in the Nineteenth Century.=
1817. The Students' Convention at the Wartburg.
1819. The conference at Carlsbad.
1823. A "provincial" representation in Prussia.
1830. The July Revolution in France; outbreaks in Germany.
1834. The Zollverein established.
1835--1848. Ferdinand I., Emperor of Austria.
1840--1861. Frederick William IV., King of Prussia.
1848. Revolution in Germany; conflicts in Austria, Prussia, and
Baden; war in Schleswig-Holstein; the National Parliament
at Frankfort; insurrection in Hungary and Italy;
bombardment of Vienna; Francis Joseph, Emperor.
1849. Frederick William IV. rejects the imperial crown; civil
war in Baden; Austria calls upon Russia for help;
surrender of Goergey; subjection of Italy.
1850. Troubles in Hesse and Holstein; end of the National
Parliament in Germany.
1851. Restoration of the Diet; Louis Napoleon, Emperor.
1852. Conference at London concerning Schleswig-Holstein.
1853--1856. War of England and France against Russia.
1858. William, Prince of Prussia, regent.
1859. War of France and Sardinia against Austria; battles of
Magenta and Solferino.
1861. William I., King of Prussia.
1862. Bismarck, Prime-Minister; political troubles in Prussia;
congress of princes at Frankfort.
1863. Continued rivalry of Austria and Prussia.
1864. War in Schleswig-Holstein; Denmark gives up the duchies;
the Prince of Augustenburg in Holstein.
1865. Agreement of Gastein; Schleswig and Holstein divided
between Austria and Prussia.
1866. Austria prepares for war; the German Diet dissolved.
1866. Battle of Langensalza; invasion of Saxony and Bohemia;
battle of Koeniggraetz; the war on the Main; truce of
Nikolsburg; annexation of Hannover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau,
and Frankfort to Prussia; the Peace of Prague.
1867. Establishment of the North-German Union; the question of
Luxemburg; hostility of France.
1869. OEcumenical Council in Rome.
1870. France declares war against Prussia; all the German
states, except Austria, unite; battles of Weissenburg
and Woerth; the German armies move on Metz; battles of
Courcelles, Mars-la-Tour, and Gravelotte; the battle of
Sedan, and surrender of Napoleon III.; the Republic
declared in Paris; capitulation of Strasburg and Metz;
siege of Paris; the war on the Loire and in the northern
1871. Victories of Prince Frederick Karl at Le Mans; Bourbaki's
repulse by Werder; surrender of Paris; Bourbaki's retreat
into Switzerland; William I. of Prussia proclaimed Emperor
of Germany; the Peace of Frankfort; foundation of the new
1872. Beginning of conflict between the German Government and
the Roman Church; Falk made Minister of Culture; the
Jesuits banished from Germany.
1873. The boundaries defined between State and Church; the May
1874. Civil marriage made obligatory.
1876. The Kulturkampf beginning to lag.
1878. Two murderous attempts on the life of Emperor William I.;
the exceptional law against the Social-Democrats put in
1879. Falk resigns; appointment of reactionary Minister of
Culture; Alliance with Austria.
1881. Emperor William I. opens Parliament; legislation for
bettering the condition of the working classes.
1882. Revision of the May laws; Triple Alliance.
1886. Warlike attitude of Russia and France; death of Ludwig II.
1887. Parliamentary conflict in regard to the military budget;
dissolution of Parliament; new elections result in favor
of the Government.
1888. Death of Emperor William I.; Frederick III., Emperor; his
reign of ninety-nine days; his death; succession of
1890. Bismarck resigns the Chancellorship; General Caprivi
succeeds him; German-English agreement.
1891. Renewal of Triple Alliance; new commercial treaties.
1892. Introduction of a new military bill.
1893. Defeat of army bill; dissolution of Parliament; the bill
carried as a result of new elections.