The Harbour: Its Marine 1828-1863

The Canada's advertisement for the season of 1828 appears in the

Loyalist of April 2. It differs a little from the one previously

given. "The British steam-packet Canada, Captain Hugh Richardson,

plying between York and Niagara, weather permitting, leaves Niagara,

&c., &c., as before. N.B.--A gun will be fired and colours hoisted

twenty-five minutes before starting."

It is interesting to observe that the
raffic of the harbour carried on

by schooners is still such as to require additional vessels of that

class. In the Loyalist of April 19, 1828, the following item

appears:--"A new schooner called the Canadian was launched here (York)

yesterday morning. She is owned by Mr. Gamble and Capt. Bowkett, the

latter of whom, we understand, takes command of her." From the same

number of the Loyalist we learn that "the launch of Mr. Hamilton's new

Steam Boat at Niagara was expected to take place on the 21st instant. In

the paper of the 17th, the launch of another schooner at York is

recorded. "A fine schooner called George the Fourth was launched here

on Wednesday last. Burthen about 70 or 80 tons." In June this schooner

is bringing emigrants to York. "During the last week," the Loyalist of

June 7th says, "several families of emigrants, arrived from Great

Britain by the spring shipping at Quebec, have reached York. The new

schooner George the Fourth landed nearly one hundred persons, besides

those which have been brought up by the steam-boats and other vessels."

The case is then mentioned of the very reprehensible conduct of the

master of one of the Lake schooners (the name is withheld), "who,

regardless of the consequences to several families who had taken passage

from Prescott to York on board his vessel, landed a body of emigrant

settlers on Gibraltar Point, during the last week, instead of putting

them, with their baggage, on one of the wharves in the Harbour--in

consequence of which, women and helpless children were exposed during a

whole night to the violence of a tremendous storm of rain, without any

shelter, and, from ignorance of their situation, unable to get to the

town. On Thursday morning the schooner Catherine, Captain Campbell,

relieved them from their uncomfortable situation, and landed them safely

in York.

In the Loyalist of June 28, 1828, the arrival in York Harbour of the

steamer lately launched at Niagara as successor to the Frontenac is

noticed. She is named the Alciope. "The new steam-boat Alciope,

lately built at Niagara, owned by Robert Hamilton, Esq., and under the

command of Capt. McKenzie, late of the Frontenac, with a number of

ladies and gentlemen on a party of pleasure, made her first entry into

our Harbour on Thursday last. She is a fine model, and fitted up in a

most elegant and convenient manner for passengers. She commences her

regular trips, we understand, next week: and under the command of Capt.

McKenzie, so well known for his skill and experience as a seaman, and

for attention to his passengers, we have no doubt the Alciope will be

found a valuable acquisition to the regular communication which is now

afforded by means of the several steamboats plying on the Lake; and that

she will receive a share of that public patronage which is so deservedly

bestowed upon the owners and commanders of other boats, whose public

spirited exertions are deserving of the highest praise."

Alciope is a singular name, taken as we suppose from the Greek

mythology, betokening, it may have been thought, one of the Nereids,

although we are not aware that the name occurs on the roll of that very

large family. One of the several wives of the mighty Hercules was a

daughter of Alciopus; she consequently may be conceived to have been an

Alciope. But how Mr. Hamilton, of Queenston, or Captain McKenzie, came

to think of such a recherche name for the new steamer is a mystery which

we wish we could clear up. It is certain that the selection led to

mispronunciations and misconceptions on the part of the general public.

By the unlearned she was usually spoken of as the Alci-ope, of course.

By a kind of antagonism among the unwashed she was the All-soap. In a

similar way, Captain McIntosh's vessel, the Eunice, which frequented

the harbour at an early period, was almost always popularly and

excusably termed the Euneece.

In the year 1828, Commodore Barrie was in York Harbour. "His Majesty's

schooner Cockburn," says the Loyalist of June 7, "bearing the broad

pennon of Commodore Barrie, entered this port on Monday last, and on

landing at the Garrison, the Commodore was received by a salute, which

was returned from the schooner. The yacht Bullfrog was in company with

the Cockburn. Commodore Barrie," it is added, "proceeds by land to

Lake Simcoe, and thence on a tour of inspection at the several Naval

Depots of the Lakes."

In the Loyalist of June 21, Capt. Richardson is taking time by the

forelock and advertising for dry pine to be supplied as fuel for the

Canada in the following season of 1829. "Steam-boat Notice. Persons

willing to supply the Canada Steam-packet with dry pine for the

ensuing season of 1829, will please make application immediately to the

subscriber for the contract. Hugh Richardson, Master and Managing Owner

of the Canada Steam-packet. York, June, 20, 1828." On the 30th of

August we have:--"Until further notice the Canada Steam-packet will

leave York as soon after her arrival as she has received her supply of

wood, firing a gun, and hoisting colours half an hour before starting."

We have also a notice in regard to the Alciope in the Loyalist of

Sept. 6:--"The steam-boat Alciope will take freight and passengers

from this port (York) during the remainder of the season, every Saturday

morning at 6 o'clock, on her way down from Niagara to Prescott, to

commence to-morrow. York, 20th August."

From the Loyalist of Sept 27, 1828, we learn that Mr. George Savage

has been appointed to the Collectorship of the port of York. He himself

announces the fact to the public in the following advertisement:--"His

Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor having been pleased to appoint me to

the Collectorship of Customs for this port, I beg leave to acquaint the

merchants, shipowners, and others having business to transact with this

branch of the revenue after the first day of October next, that I have

temporarily established an office in part of the premises fronting on

Duke Street, occupied by Mr. Columbus. George Savage, Collector. York,

26th September, 1828." Bulky in form and somewhat consequential in

manner, Mr. Savage was a conspicuous figure in York down to the time of

his death in 1835, when he was succeeded by Mr. Thos. Carfrae. Mr.

Savage was, as his office required him to be, vigilant in respect of the

dues leviable at the Port of York. But the contrabandists were

occasionally too adroit for him. We have heard of a number of kegs or

barrels, supposed to contain spirits, confidentially reported to him as

sunk in the depths of the bay, near one of the wharves, which kegs or

barrels, when carefully fished up and conveyed to Mr. Mosley's rooms to

be disposed of by auction, were found, on being tapped, to contain

harmless water; but while Mr. Savage and his men were busily engaged in

making this profitless seizure, the real wares--teas, spirits, and so

on--which were sought to be illicitly introduced, were landed without

molestation in Humber Bay. The practice of smuggling was, we believe,

rather rife in and about the harbour of York in the olden time. In a

Gazette of 1820 (Nov. 30), we observe the schooner Industry

advertised for sale by the Custom House authorities as having been taken

in the act; and on the 17th of October, 1821, Mr. Allan reports to the

magistrates, at Quarter Sessions, that he had seized ten barrels of

salt, in which were found concealed kegs of tobacco to the value of five

pounds and upwards, brought to York from the United States in an

American schooner, called the New Haven, A. Johnson, master. The

Magistrates declared the whole forfeited to the "King." At the same time

a system of illicit reciprocity was in vogue, and the products of Canada

were introduced, or sought to be introduced, into the domain of the

United States, sometimes in singular ways. On one occasion Daniel

Lambert, a gigantic wax-figure, returned from Canada to the United

States replete with articles designed for import without entry. The

Albany Argus of the day thus describes the adventure:--"Daniel Lambert

turned smuggler.--This mammoth gentleman of wax, who is exhibited for

the admiration of the curious in every part of the country, was lately

met on his way from Canada by a Custom House officer, who, remarking the

rotundity of Daniel's corporation, had the curiosity to subject it to a

critical inspection; when, lo! instead of flesh and blood, or even

straw, the entire fabric of this unwieldy gentleman was found to be

composed of fine English cloths and kerseymeres."

Towards the close of the year 1828 we have Capt. Mosier's marriage

mentioned in a number of the Loyalist (for Dec. 13), thus: "Married

at Prescott, on the 20th ult., Capt John Mosier, Master of the Niagara

Steam-packet, to Miss Caroline F. Munro, second daughter of Major Munro,

of Edwardsburgh."

In January, 1829, the schooner George Canning was plying between York

and Niagara, the weather being open. In the Niagara Herald of Jan. 29,

1829, we have the notice, "Conveyance to York, Upper Canada, by the

fast-sailing schooner George Canning, commanded by Capt J. Whitney.

The public are respectfully informed that during the continuance of the

present open season the above schooner will ply as a Packet between York

and Niagara. From being perfectly new and thoroughly found, she is with

confidence recommended as a safe and easy mode of conveyance to the

capital of Upper Canada. For information in regard to time of departure,

application to be made to Capt. Whitney on board, or at Chrysler's Inn,

Niagara. January 22, 1829." The Loyalist of April 4 in this year,

1829, reports that "the steamboat Canada is ready to commence her

trips to and from Niagara as soon as the ice is out of the bay. It has

broken up a good deal," the Loyalist says, "within the last few days,

and from its appearance after the late rain we may hope that the

navigation will soon be open. Schooners have been crossing the Lake for

some time past. Last year the first steamboat from Kingston arrived here

on the fifth of April." The usual advertisement of the Canada's

movements for the season appears in this number of the Loyalist.

In May the steamer Niagara brought up Bishop Macdonell. The Loyalist

of May 9, 1829, notes his arrival at York:--"The R. C. Bishop, the Rev.

Mr. Macdonell, arrived here in the steamboat Niagara on Tuesday last,

accompanied by the Rev. W. Macdonell." It is added:--"The Rev. Messrs.

Fraser and Chisholm arrived on the Thursday following in the Alciope."

In this month the Queenston takes away troops from York. In the

Loyalist of May 16, 1829, the following item appears:--"The first

division of the 68th Regiment, under the command of Capt. Macdonell, en

route to Montreal, left York on Tuesday last, on board the Queenston.

The Alciope, from Kingston, brings intelligence of their having

arrived at that place on the following day." The same paper reports that

"the steam-boats have some difficulty in getting into the Niagara River

from the large quantities of ice passing down from the Upper Lake." And

again in the same paper, under date of Niagara, May 11:--"The ice from

Lake Erie has been running most of the last week, and continues to run

to-day--so much so that the river, we believe, has not been passable

since nine o'clock this morning."

A notice of the opening of navigation at Buffalo this year appears in

the Loyalist of May 23, copied from the Buffalo Republican of the

16th of May. The scene is graphically depicted. "The schooner Eagle,"

the Republican says, "was the first vessel that entered our harbour

this season. She ploughed her way through three or four miles of

floating ice to the gratification of about a thousand spectators." The

Republican also gives the following, which presents us with even

grander spectacles:--"On Thursday morning the steamboat Pioneer

started through the ice on her first trip to Dunkirk, with a full load

of passengers. In the afternoon the steamer William Penn, Capt.

Wright, commenced her first trip to Detroit, having on board upwards of

400 passengers destined to Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan." "On Friday,

about noon," the Buffalo paper then adds, "the steamboat Henry Clay,

Norton, having previously arrived from Black Rock, left our harbour in

fine style, having a heavy and full load of passengers. The steamboat

Niagara, Pease, will leave on Monday for Detroit, as we understand."

A casualty in York Bay is noticed in the Loyalist of Oct. 4, 1828.

"Mr. William Crone, contractor for gravelling the streets of the town,

was unfortunately drowned on Saturday last. It appears that Mr. Crone

was knocked overboard from the Durham boat, in which he was bringing a

load of gravel from the Island, by the sudden shifting of the boom, and,

being stunned by the blow, sunk before assistance could be rendered to


In Oct., 1828, Sir Peregrine Maitland arrives in York Harbour on board

of the yacht Bullfrog, compelled to put in by stress of weather. He

was on his way from the Lower Province to Niagara. "His Excellency Sir

P. Maitland, after having visited Quebec, returning by the route of the

Rideau Canal, arrived at York," says the Loyalist of Oct. 18, "on

Monday morning from Kingston, on board His Majesty's yacht Bullfrog,

Commodore Barrie, and on landing was received by a salute from the

garrison. It was His Excellency's intention, we understand, to have

landed at Niagara, but the Bullfrog having encountered a heavy gale on

the previous night, was obliged to make for York. His Excellency

proceeded to Niagara on Wednesday by the Canada, and Commodore Barrie

with the Bullfrog left the harbour on the same day on return to

Kingston." Sir Peregrine, we may observe, was on the point of leaving

Upper Canada, having been appointed to the Government of Nova Scotia.

The arrival of his successor at New York is announced in the same paper.

"The packet ship Corinthian arrived at New York on the evening of the

7th instant. Sir John Colborne and family were passengers in the

Corinthian, and may therefore be daily expected at this place (York)."

It is announced in the same paper that "a public dinner will be given to

His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland, previous to his departure from

this Province. Tickets of admission to be had at Messrs. Meighan's." In

the number for November 4, we have an account of the addresses which are

being presented to Sir Peregrine on the occasion of his departure, with

the remark:--"The expressions of respect for his administration of the

Government, and of personal esteem towards His Excellency and family,

which these addresses contain, afford the most satisfactory testimonials

that the sincere and anxious desire of His Excellency for the

improvement of the country and the happiness of its inhabitants are duly

appreciated when the period of a long and arduous administration is

about to terminate. These, together with the approbation of his

Sovereign, fully evinced by the more important Civil and Military

honours conferred upon him, cannot but be gratifying, as well to His

Excellency as to the inhabitants of the Province generally." And again

in the Loyalist of the 15th Nov., it is stated that "the last

Gazette contains addresses to His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland,

on his departure from the Province--from the Magistrates, Grand Jury,

and Bar of the London District, in Quarter Sessions assembled; from the

towns of Kingston and Brockville, and from Grimsby, all expressing the

same sentiments of personal regard and respect for his administration of

this Government, as those which were previously presented from other

places to His Excellency."

On Monday, the 10th of November, the new Governor, Sir John Colborne, is

at the Falls, making explorations there, while the steamer Canada is

taking the luggage on board at Lewiston, preparatory to the passage over

to York. The Niagara Gleaner, quoted in the Loyalist, says:--"On

Monday last His Excellency Sir John Colborne paid a visit to the Falls.

His own elegant carriage, drawn by four spirited horses, furnished by

Mr. Chrysler, carried his Excellency's lady, her sister Miss Yonge, and

five children. His Excellency went on horseback, accompanied by Capt.

Phillpotts, of the Royal Engineers. In the meantime the steamer Canada

went to Lewiston, took in His Excellency's luggage, and was ready to

receive His Excellency and family at an early hour on Tuesday morning.

On the departure of the vessel a salute was fired from Fort George. We

have been informed," the Gleaner adds, "that His Excellency was highly

gratified with the first view of the Province and the friendly reception

he met with; also of the good things he partook of at the hotel, much of

which was the produce of the Province."

Capt. McKenzie died August 27, 1832, aged 50. At the time of his death

he was engaged in the construction of a steamer at the head of the Lake,

and of another on Lake Simcoe. In 1832 Capt. Elmsley is offering for

sale his yacht the Dart. In the York Sapper and Miner of Oct. 25,

1832, we read the notice:--"For sale, the fast-sailing cutter Dart,

221/2 tons burden, with or without rigging, sails, and other furniture.

For particulars enquire of the Hon. John Elmsley. York, 24th May, 1832."

There is an accidental prolepsis in the "Hon." He was not appointed to a

seat in the Upper House until after 1837. Capt. Elmsley, with his

friend, Mr. Jeffrey Hale, afterwards of Quebec, left the service of the

Royal Navy about 1832. In 1837 Captain Elmsley was appointed to the

command of a Government vessel carrying two swivel-guns on the Lower St.

Lawrence. He subsequently settled for a time on his estate known as

Clover Hill, where he expended considerable sums of money in farming

operations. Later he again undertook the command of a vessel, the James

Coleman, trading on his own account between Halifax and Quebec. He

afterwards, for a time, commanded one of the mail steamers on Lake

Ontario, the Sovereign. (In several other connections we have had

occasion to give particulars of Captain Elmsley's career.) The Dart,

above named, was built at York by Mr. Purkis, a well-known shipwright

there. In 1834, we notice, in MacKenzie's Advocate of March 13, a

marine item following an observation on the mildness of the

season:--"The weather is very mild for the season," the Advocate says:

"occasional showers; plenty of sunshine and slight frosts. A schooner

sailed last Tuesday for Niagara, and is expected back to-morrow."

It was in 1834 the grand old name Toronto was recovered by the harbour

and town, whose early marine we have sought in some degree to recall.

We have evidence in the Toronto Recorder of July 30, 1834, that, at

that period, at least seven steamers were frequenting the harbour of

Toronto. In the paper named we read in succession seven rather long

steamboat advertisements. "The splendid low-pressure steamboat the

Constitution, Edward Zealand, master." She runs from Hamilton to

Toronto, touching at Oakville; thence to Cobourg, touching at Port Hope;

thence to Rochester, and vice versa. It is stated that "the

Constitution will afford a safe and expeditious opportunity for

merchants from New York and other places to forward their goods by way

of Rochester to the head of the Lake Ontario." Agents at Hamilton,

Messrs. E. and J. Ritchie; Oakville, Mr. Thomas; Toronto, James F.

Smith, Esq.; Rochester, Mr. Greene, forwarder; Cobourg, E. Perry, Esq.;

Port Hope, J. Brown, Esq. Captain Zealand had formerly been in the

command of an ocean-going merchant ship. "The steamboat William IV.,

Charles Paynter, Commander, propelled by a Low-Pressure Engine of a

Hundred Horse-power." She runs between Prescott, Niagara, and Lewiston,

touching at Brockville, Gananoque, Kingston, Cobourg, Port Hope,

Toronto, Hamilton, and vice versa. "For freight or passage, apply at

the Post-office, Toronto, or to the Captain on board." Four smoke

funnels rendered the William IV. recognizable at a distance. "The

fast-sailing steamboat, St. George, Lieut. Harper, R.N., Commander."

She runs between Prescott, Brockville, Kingston, Toronto, and Niagara,

and vice versa. "This beautiful vessel," the advertisement says, "is

propelled by a Low-Pressure Engine of Ninety Horse-power, is schooner

rigged, and has accommodation for sixty cabin passengers. The St.

George will wait the arrival of the passengers who leave Montreal by

Thursday morning's stage." "The splendid fast-sailing steamboat

Cobourg, Capt. Charles Mcintosh, Master, propelled by two low-pressure

engines of fifty-horse power each." She runs between Prescott,

Brockville, Kingston and Toronto, and vice versa. "This boat will be

found by the travelling community not surpassed by any on Lake Ontario

for elegance, comfort and speed. The Cobourg will wait the arrival of

the Montreal stage before leaving for her upward trip. For freight or

passage apply to the Master or Purser on board." "The Queenston, Capt.

James Sutherland." This is the Queenston of which we have heard

already. She runs, according to the advertisement in the Recorder,

between Toronto and Hamilton. "Cabin passage each way, two dollars

(meals extra). Deck passage each way, one dollar. All baggage and small

parcels at the risk of the owners, unless delivered to the Captain and

entered as freight. Freight payable on delivery. As the boat will be

punctual to the hour of sailing, passengers are requested to be on board

in due time." Captain Sutherland has been chief officer of the first

steamer which crossed the Atlantic to Quebec, the Unicorn. He had

before been engaged in the Hudson's Bay trade. "The splendid

low-pressure steamboat Great Britain, Capt. Whitney." She runs between

Prescott, Brockville, Kingston, Oswego, Cobourg, Port Hope, Toronto, and

vice versa. "The accommodations on board the Great Britain have been

much enlarged and improved during last winter, and every exertion will

be used to ensure regularity and comfort to the passengers. The above

boat will await the arrival of the passengers that leave Montreal on

Monday by the Upper Canada stage. Emigrants and others desirous of

taking this conveyance are requested to call at the Ontario Steamboat

Office in this town (Prescott), and procure tickets."

Finally, the Recorder displays the usual advertisement of the

Steam-packet Canada, Hugh Richardson, Master. She leaves Toronto daily

for Niagara, at seven in the morning, and Niagara daily for Toronto, at

one in the afternoon. The fares continue unchanged. "Passengers

returning to either of the Ports within the week will only be charged

half-price for the return. Accommodation for Horses, Carriages, and

Cattle." About the same period the Oneida, of Oswego, the Hamilton,

the Sir Robert Peel, and the Commodore Barrie, are other steamers

entering the harbour of Toronto.

Near the landing place at Niagara, a row of capacious warehouses is

still to be seen, disused and closed up, over the large double portals

of which, respectively, are to be dimly discerned the following

inscriptions in succession:--Great Britain; William IV.; St. George;

United Kingdom; Cobourg; Commodore Barrie; Canada; Schooners. This is a

relic of the period to which we are now referring. These warehouses were

the places of deposit for freight, tackling, and other property

appertaining to the vessels named, with a compartment for the

accommodation of Schooners collectively. Niagara was then the

headquarters of the shipping interests of the Lake, and the place where

the principal wholesale mercantile houses were situated.

Sailing craft visiting the Harbour in 1835, and later, were:--the Three

Brothers, the Superior, the Emily, the Robert Burns, the

Prosperity, the Fanny, the Perseverance, the Matilda, of Oswego,

the Elizabeth, of Lewiston, the Guernsey, the Peacock, the

Caroline, the Fair American, the Sovereign, the Jessie Woods,

the Erin, the Charlotte, the Winnebago, the Lord Nelson, the

Enterprise, the Boxer.

The Three Brothers was so named from the three brothers

McIntosh--John, Robert, and Henry. John commanded the Three Brothers;

Charles commanded the Superior, named second above; Robert commanded

the Eunice, of which we have heard already. Two other brothers of this

marine family were early owners of contiguous building lots on the east

side of Yonge street, south of Shuter street. Prosperous descendants of

the same name are still to be found in business on a portion of this

property. Modern improvements have caused the removal of many of the

original buildings of this locality; but one of the McIntosh family

residences yet remains, at the present time converted into the show

rooms of a carriage manufactory. (Capt. Wm. McIntosh, of the Minerva

Ann, a schooner of this period, was of another family).

The Fanny is noticeable as having been the first craft commanded by

Captain Dick of Toronto, who speedily afterwards became distinguished in

connection with the steam marine of Lake Ontario, not only as a builder,

large proprietor, and sailing master, but also as commander of a

Despatch vessel in the Public Service, especially during the troubles of

1837. The Fanny was the property of Mr. James Lockhart of Niagara, as

also were the Sovereign and the Jessie Woods. The Boxer was

commanded by a veteran Lake captain, Wm. Peeke. Capt. Peeke, it is

stated, supplied lime burnt at Duffin's Creek before the close of the

last century, for the foundation of the Lighthouse on Gibraltar Point,

and other structures in York.

In 1835, the harbour was visited by Capt. George and his barge from

Quebec. Capt. George--for so he was styled in these parts, although, as

we shall see, not a professional navigator--was a combined nautical and

mechanical genius, who vigorously urged on Government and the forwarding

community the adoption of a scheme of his for enabling loaded vessels to

overcome the rapids of the St. Lawrence, and reach the upper ports

without breaking bulk. Pulleys and chains were to be anchored at points

in the river, or along the banks of the stream. He contrived to get his

own barge in this way up to Toronto, well filled with merchandize, and

made the return trip with cargo of the upper country products, possibly

more than once, but the undertaking, being found too expensive for a

private individual, was abandoned; and soon after, the construction of

canals round the rapids rendered needless all such ingenious projects.

Mr. George had been long a merchant in Quebec; and it was simply his

inability to secure a satisfactory person for the superintendence of his

experiment, that induced him to take the command of his own vessel in

her perilous venture up and down the St. Lawrence. Mr. George continued

to reside at Quebec; and for an annual stipend of L200, he offered the

corporation of the city to create for them every winter a "pont," or

ice-bridge, opposite the city. From the action of the tides, the "pont"

fails occasionally to form, to the great inconvenience of the

inhabitants. Here again Mr. George gave ocular proof of the

practicability of his plan. Proceeding up the river above the influence

of the tide, he cut loose a vast field of ice and floated it down whole

to Quebec, where it fixed itself fast between Cape Diamond and the

opposite shore, and formed a "pont." It did not, however, prove

sufficiently durable. Some eccentricity in language is remembered as

characterizing Mr. George. A person conversing with him occasionally

found himself addressed in rhyming couplets, as if, of their own accord,

his words would run into doggerel. "Some chance of wreck between this

and Quebec! Mishap befall ere I reach Montreal! You're a fool! go to

school!" &c. His barge likewise is described as possessing a peculiar

rig. Its masts, or rather the two spars which served to support his

sails, formed above the deck, as we are told, a sort of large St.

Andrew's cross, such being, according to him, the most convenient

arrangement for working the leg of mutton or triangular sails which he

used. (We note here the two heroic captains who were the first to

encounter appalling risks on the waters of the St. Lawrence in vessels

propelled by steam. Captain Maxwell, in the employment at the time of

Messrs. McPherson and Crane, first discovered and navigated in a

steamboat the deep channel of the Long Sault; and Captain Hilliard, on

board the steamer Ontario, first descended the rapids at Lachine.)

In 1835 and years immediately following, additional names appear in the

Toronto harbour steam-marine lists--the Experiment, the Queen, the

Gore, the Princess Royal, the Traveller, the City of Toronto

(the first steamer so named), all of them boats built at Niagara under

the superintendence of Capt. Dick, and all of them, with the exception

of the Traveller, in the Royal Mail Service. The City of Toronto,

built in 1841, and commanded by Captain Dick, was the first steamer that

conveyed the mails westward. The mail-service previously had been

performed by Mr. Weller and his stage-coaches. The principal owners of

the vessels named were Mr. James Lockhart, of Niagara, Capt. Dick

himself, Mr. Andrew Heron, also of Niagara, and Mr. Donald Bethune. The

Experiment, above mentioned, was the Government Despatch boat which,

under the command of Capt. Dick, did such good service on the Lake

during the troubles of 1837.

When the steam-packet Canada was finally sold, Capt. Richardson

commanded and principally owned the Transit, on the route between York

and Niagara. This Transit was in reality the steamer Constitution,

of which we have already heard as being commanded by Capt. Zealand,

conjointly with the Transit. A steamer named the Queen was for a

time maintained by Capt. Richardson on the route between Niagara, the

head of the Lake, and York. The Queen was under the charge of Capt.

Richardson's son, Mr. Hugh Richardson, assisted by two brothers, Charles

and Henry Richardson. Simultaneously with the Transit and Queen, the

City of Toronto (the first steamer so named) also plied to Niagara,

under the command of Capt. Dick. After some years the Transit was sold

and became a tug-boat on the river below. The steamer Chief Justice

Robinson was then built by Capt. Richardson for the Niagara route, in

some respects after a model of his own, being provided, like the ancient

war-galleys, with a rostrum or projecting beak low down on a level with

the water, for the purpose, as was generally supposed, of breaking a way

through ice when such an impediment existed; but by Capt. Richardson

himself, the peculiar confirmation of the prow was expected to

facilitate the vessel's progress through the heavy surges of the Lake.

About 1850 the Chief Justice Robinson became the property of Capt.

Dick and Mr. Heron. This transfer closed the career of Capt. Richardson

as a commander on the Lake. From 1852 to 1870 he filled the post of

Harbour-master at Toronto, and on the 2nd of July, 1870, he died, in

the 87th year of his age. The Chief Justice continued to ply between

Toronto and Niagara, in company with the City of Toronto, until the

removal of the latter vessel to the waters of Lake Huron, where she

became famous as the Algoma.

In 1855 the Peerless was placed on the Niagara route. The Peerless

was an iron vessel, first constructed in the Clyde in parts, then taken

asunder and shipped to Canada, where she was put together again under

the eye of her owner, Capt. Dick, at Niagara. The number of pieces

entering into the composition of the Peerless was six thousand. Such a

method of transporting an iron ship from the Clyde to Niagara, if

complicated and troublesome, was shown to be, at all events, a dictate

of prudence by the fate which befell a vessel intended to be a companion

to the Peerless on Lake Ontario. A steamship of iron named Her

Majesty, built in the Clyde expressly for Capt. Dick, was lost in the

Atlantic, with all the men in charge on board, sixteen in number; so

that no clue was ever attained as to the cause of the disaster. We now

find ourselves treating of times which, strictly speaking, do not come

within the scope of these 'collections and recollections.'

For the sake of imparting roundness and completeness to our narrative,

we have ventured on the few details just given. We finish by simply

naming the successor of the Peerless on the route to Niagara, Capt.

Milloy's splendid steamer, the Zimmerman. It fell to our lot to

witness the last agonies of this vessel in the devouring flames as she

lay at the Niagara quay, near the mouth of the Niagara River. On that

never-to-be-forgotten occasion (Aug. 21, 1863), the long-continued

shrieking of the steam whistle, the resounding moans and convulsive

sighs issuing fitfully, in a variety of keys, from the tubes of the

boiler and other parts of the steam apparatus, gave to all hearers and

on-lookers the painful and most affecting impression of some gigantic

sentient creature helplessly undergoing a fiery death, suffering in the

process grievous pangs, protracted and inexpressible.