Discovered by John Cabot in 1497. First settlement made by

Jacques Cartier, in 1535, on the banks of the St. Charles. In 1608

Champlain founded the city of Quebec, almost on the spot where Jacques

Cartier had wintered; the country ceded to Great Britain by France, by

the treaty of Paris, 1763; civil government provided by Quebec Act,

1774; and a measure of responsible government by the Constitutional Act,

1791; invasion by Americans, 1775-1776; War of 1812; Rebellions of

1837-1838, in Upper and Lower Canada; union of Upper and Lower Canada,

1841; Confederation of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, 1867;

Manitoba added to the Dominion, 1870; British Columbia, 1871; Prince

Edward Island, 1873; provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta created,

1905. =Index=: (Lord Dorchester era) Surrender of, 2; under military rule till conclusion

of peace, 2; acquisition of, by Britain, hastened American Revolution,

3; ceded by treaty of Paris to Great Britain, 7; its wide extent at that

time, 8; French population of, at cession, 9; English-speaking

population, 9; petition for restoration of its ancient limits, 61;

division of, into two provinces proposed, 248; political possibilities

after conquest, 253-257; boundaries of, not defined by Constitutional

Act, 260. (George Brown Era) Party government--origin of the double ministries, 81-82;

election frauds in 1857, 99-100; process of expansion--Confederation and

after, 264. (Lord Elgin era) First railway in, 99; early political conditions in,

17-40; difficulties connected with responsible government in, 26;

principles of responsible government, 228; her political system

contrasted with that of United States, 241 et seq. (Wolfe / Montcalm era) Interests

French commanders and their men but little, 11; its vulnerable points,

17; its strong social and political organization gave it an advantage in

war, 24; but was unfavourable to internal development, 24. (Lord Sydenham era) Rapid

progress made in Anglicizing previous to passing of Quebec Act, 63;

unfortunate change of policy regarding, 64. (Count Frontenac era) Population of, 36, 55,

58, 131, 147, 148; poverty of impresses Sister Bourgeoys, 39; morals of

the people, 58, 59; overgoverned, 131; trade, 148; affected by all the

vicissitudes of mother country, 150, 151; "farmers" of revenue appointed

for, 154; Bishop St. Vallier's first description of country and

inhabitants, 192; Governor Denonville's description, 192; St. Vallier's

revised opinion, 193; real character of the people, 193-195; state of

depression throughout the country, 219, 240; drinking habits of people,

223; described by Laval as the country of miracles, 301; exhaustion of,

after departure of New England fleet, 305, 317. See also New France;

Cartier, Jacques; Cabot, John; Champlain; Quebec Act; Constitutional

Act; Union Act; Upper Canada; Lower Canada; Confederation.

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